CHI Saves The Day

Tags:

Originally posted as: CHI Saves The Day on blogs.perl.org.

The Server Is Down

  1. No it isn't, I didn't get paged.
  2. Wait a minute, why didn't I get paged?
  3. FUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU--
  4. CHALLENGE ACCEPTED

Diagnosis

The client reported that the site sometimes took more than a minute to load. Doesn't respond very slowly to me, and the pager is only primed to ping me if there is a sustained downtime (hiccups are not something I want to wake up for every night at 3:00am).

Strangely, load hovered around 7 most of the time, only spiking to 13 every few minutes. With a 16-core processor, this was well within operating parameters, if just a little worrisome. Nothing in the log files.

Oops, now I get a slow page load. Takes 30 seconds to load a page. Refresh again, and the page loads just fine. Clear browser cache, and the page still loads just fine.

top kept MySQL at the top of the CPU list. Not surprising, as this server is the master database server for a two node cluster. So I keep an eye on top as I poll mysql for its process list.

A pattern emerges: The load spikes and server goes unresponsive when this happens:

This table shows 12 different processes are trying to update the same cache location (process ID 2-3, 5-8, 10, 12-13, 18, 23, and 26). Because of MyISAM's table-level lock, any request to get from the cache has to wait for 12 REPLACE INTO requests to complete. They've already taken 1 second, if each replace takes 2 seconds, that's 24 seconds of non-responsive website.

These 12 processes all saw that the cache item had expired and are trying to update it. This is called a "cache stampede". Only one of them needs to update the cache, the rest are just wasting resources. Worse, they're doing all the work to update the cache, which is much more expensive than getting the value from the cache. If it's expensive enough, the site goes down hard.

Management

How can we stop the cache stampede? One way is to mildly randomize the actual expiration date when checking if the cache is expired:

sub is_expired {
    my ( $self, $key ) = @_;
    my $expires = $self->get_expires( $key );
    # Randomize the expiration by up to 5% +/-
    # by first removing 5% and then adding 0-10%
    $expires = $expires - ( $expires * 0.05 ) + ( $expires * 0.10 * rand );
    # Compare against now
    return $expires > time;
}

In this very simple case, if you are within 5% of the expiration time, you have a chance to have an expired cache item. The chance grows as time passes, reaching 50% at the actual expiration time, and 100% at 5% past the expiration time.

Rather than add this expiration variance to our custom database cache, I instead opted to move this site over to CHI, which has this protection built-in.

my $cache   = CHI->new(
    driver              => 'DBI',
    namespace           => 'localhost',
    dbh                 => $dbh,
    expires_variance    => '0.10',
);

This stops the cache stampede, but we're still hitting the database a lot. Remember we have two web nodes hitting one database node. The fewer database hits we make, the better performance we can get without having to ask for more hardware from the client (which takes time, and forms, and more forms, and meetings, and forms, and more meetings, and probably some forms).

Because this is a distributed system, we need a distributed, synchronized cache. We cannot use memcached, as WebGUI 7.x does not support it (but WebGUI 8 does). So for now we must use the database as our synchronized cache, but what if we put a faster, local cache in front of the slower, synchronized cache?

CHI has an awesome way to do this: Add an l1_cache

my $cache   = CHI->new(
    driver              => 'DBI',
    namespace           => 'localhost',
    dbh                 => $dbh,
    expires_variance    => '0.10',
    l1_cache            => {
        driver      => 'FastMmap',
        root_dir    => '/tmp/cache',
    },
);

Now we're using FastMmap to share an in-memory cache between our web processes, and if the L1 cache is expired or missing, we look for content from the DBI cache. If that cache is missing or expired, we have a cache miss and have to recompute the value.

Hurdles

I had to install the DB tables myself, which was not difficult, just undocumented (bug report filed). MySQL only allows a 1000-byte key, and the CHI::Driver::DBI tries to create a 600-character key. This is fine in the Latin-1 charset, but MySQL complains if you're using UTF-8 by default.

The driver also tries to create a TEXT field to hold the cache value, but MySQL expects a text field to hold characters in a known character set. After noticing that my cache values were empty, I changed to a LONGBLOB.

The full create table statements are below:

-- primary cache table: chi_<namespace> --
CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS `chi_localhost` (
    `key` VARCHAR(255),
    `value` LONGBLOB,
    PRIMARY KEY ( `key` )
);

-- CHI metacache table --
CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS `chi__CHI_METACACHE` (
    `key` VARCHAR(255),
    `value` LONGBLOB,
    PRIMARY KEY ( `key` )
);

Results

The server is stable again! Spikes do not turn into out-of-control loads and unresponsive server. We'll see how things go tomorrow during normal business hours (the peak time for this site), but right now it looks like CHI has saved the day!

What's New in WebGUI 8.0 #5 - Asset Helpers

Tags:

Originally posted as: What's New in WebGUI 8.0 #5 - Asset Helpers on blogs.perl.org.

By far the biggest change we've made in WebGUI 8 is the new Admin Console. Though parts of it may look familiar, it has been completely rewritten from the ground up to be a flexible, extensible, responsive JavaScript application making calls to JSON services in Perl.

I could talk about how to use the admin interface, but I don't think that's why you would read this blog, so instead I'm going to talk about how you can add functionality to it.

Continue reading What's New in WebGUI 8.0 #5 - Asset Helpers...

What's New in WebGUI 8.0 #4 -- CHI Cache

Tags:

Originally posted as: What's New in WebGUI 8.0 #4 -- CHI Cache on blogs.perl.org.

Caching is a tricky business. Having just one kind of cache won't work, because the production environment will greatly determine the most efficient caching system. A distributed production environment would be best-served with a distributed cache. A smaller, single-server environment could use a simple shared memory cache.

Enter Jonathan Swartz's CHI module, the greatest Perl module to provide a unified caching interface. CHI is the DBI of caching: It presents an API, and delegates to CHI::Driver modules to perform the heavy lifting. It provides a layered caching system, allowing you to have a faster, more volatile cache in front of a slower, more persistent cache. It also provides a variable expiration time, preventing a "miss stampede" where all processes try to recompute an expired cache item at the same time.

By integrating CHI cache into WebGUI, we have the ability to provide any caching strategy that CHI can provide. We get Memcached, FastMmap, and DBI drivers (and more drivers can be written).

I wrote a CHI cache driver for WebGUI 7.9 that we've been using on many of our shared hosting servers. The performance increase using FastMmap through CHI over the old Storable+DBI cache module is dramatic: 2-5 times faster with CHI and FastMmap.

Using CHI in WebGUI

The fewer wrappers that WebGUI has around CPAN modules we use, the less code I have to write, and the more features will be available to our users without having to change WebGUI to use them.

To that end, you can write a section of the configuration file that gets passed directly to CHI->new. Some massaging occurs to make sure a DBI cache driver gets the right $dbh, but otherwise you can fully configure CHI directly from the WebGUI config file:

# The new default cache for WebGUI, FastMmap
{
     cache : {
         driver : 'FastMmap',
         root_dir : '/tmp/WebGUICache',
         expires_variance : 0.5
     }
 }

 # Set up a memcached cache with local memory in front
 {
     cache : {
         driver : 'Memcached::libmemcached',
         servers : [ '10.0.0.100:11211', '10.0.0.110:11211' ],
         l1_cache : {
            driver : 'Memory'
         }
     }
 }

When you want to use the cache in your code, you can get a CHI object with $session->cache. CHI's interface is sufficiently simple, with some fun tricks:

my $cache = $session->cache; # as read
my $value = $cache->get('cache_key');
if ( !$value ) {
    $value = compute_value();
    $cache->set( 'cache_key', $value );
}

# Combine get and set with intelligence
my $value = $cache->compute( 'cache_key', \&compute_value );

Future Plans

With a single unified cache that performs well and layers like CHI, we can take our current stow and scratch APIs and move them to the cache. In the case of stow, we remove a redundant API. In the case of scratch, we remove database hits.

We've also been exploring cache-only sessions, instead of updating the session every time a page is requested, updating the cache only, flushing to the database (or not). The fewer DB calls we make per page, the better performance will be.

Special thanks go out to Jonathan Swartz for such a wonderful solution.

Stay tuned for next time when I explore our new Admin Interface. Lots of pretty and screenshots!

What's New in WebGUI 8.0 #3: Upgrade System

Tags:

Originally posted as: What's New in WebGUI 8.0 #3: Upgrade System on blogs.perl.org.

Following The Path

If you installed WebGUI 0.9.0 back in August of 2001 (the first public release), you've had a stable upgrade path through WebGUI 7.10.8 (January 2011) and beyond. Plainblack.com has been through every upgrade for the last 10 years, a shining bastion to our upgradability.

A WebGUI 7.10 user would not even recognize a WebGUI 6.0 database, much less the database used by the 1.x series, but slowly, gradually, our upgrade system brought new features to every WebGUI site that wanted them.

The Ancient Way

Our old upgrade system was quite simple:

docs/upgrade_2.9.0-3.0.0.pl
docs/upgrade_3.0.0-3.0.1.sql
docs/upgrade_3.0.0-3.0.1.pl

Our upgrade.pl script would check for docs/upgrade_*, compare version numbers, and then execute the .sql and .pl scripts in order until there were no more upgrades left.

Because each .pl script was executed individually, there was a considerable amount of boilerplate in each script (123 lines). Because there was only one script per version, some scripts could get quite long. We had conventions to manage these limitations, but it was still a bit of a mind-twist to write an upgrade routine.

Later, when we moved to simultaneous beta and stable trees, it became even more difficult to manage these huge upgrade scripts. Collecting the new features from the beta tree to apply to the stable tree was a time-consuming manual task that some poor coder had to perform, back hunched over a dimly-lit screen in the wee hours of the night, testing and re-testing the upgrade to make sure stable lived up to its expectations.

Though our upgrade system had performed admirably, it was time for a fresh look at the problem.

The Modern Vision

The individual files for upgrades was working quite well, but didn't go far enough. Our new upgrade system has one file per upgrade step. Each sub from an old upgrade script would be one file in the new upgrade system. What's more, additional file types would be supported:

$ ls share/upgrades/7.10.4-8.0.0/
addNewAdminConsole.pl
admin_console.wgpkg
facebook_auth.sql
migrateToNewCache.pl
moveMaintenance.pl
moveRequiredProfileFields.pl

So now, instead of a single file for an upgrade, we have an entire directory. In this directory, the .pl files are scripts to be run, the .wgpkg files are WebGUI assets to add to the site, the .sql files are SQL commands to run, and any .txt files will be shown as a confirmation message to the user for gotchas like "All your users have been logged out as a result of this upgrade. Deal with it.".

So now, if you want to add your own custom upgrade routine, you just add another file to the directory which means less worrying about conflicts. When we need to build another new stable version release, we can just move the unique upgrade files from beta to the new upgrade.

The best part of the new upgrade system is how the .pl scripts are written. When you are in a .pl, you have a bunch of sugar to make the basic tasks much easier.

# Old upgrade routine. Just another day in a session
sub migrateToNewCache {
    my $session = shift;
    print "\tMigrating to new cache " unless $quiet;

    use File::Path;
    rmtree "../../lib/WebGUI/Cache";
    unlink "../../lib/WebGUI/Workflow/Activity/CleanDatabaseCache.pm";
    unlink "../../lib/WebGUI/Workflow/Activity/CleanFileCache.pm";

    my $config = $session->config;
    $config->set("cache", {
        driver              => 'FastMmap',
        expires_variance   => '0.10',
        root_dir            => '/tmp/WebGUICache',
    });

    $config->set("hotSessionFlushToDb", 600);
    $config->delete("disableCache");
    $config->delete("cacheType");
    $config->delete("fileCacheRoot");
    $config->deleteFromArray("workflowActivities/None", "WebGUI::Workflow::Activity::CleanDatabaseCache");
    $config->deleteFromArray("workflowActivities/None", "WebGUI::Workflow::Activity::CleanFileCache");

    my $db = $session->db;
    $db->write("drop table cache");
    $db->write("delete from WorkflowActivity where className in ('WebGUI::Workflow::Activity::CleanDatabaseCache','WebGUI::Workflow::Activity::CleanFileCache')");
    $db->write("delete from WorkflowActivityData where activityId in  ('pbwfactivity0000000002','pbwfactivity0000000022')");

    print "DONE!\n" unless $quiet;
}

If you're familiar with WebGUI session, this is pretty standard, but still much boilerplate and convention. The new scripts remove boilerplate and enforce what was once merely convention.

# New upgrade routine. migrateToNewCache.pl
use WebGUI::Upgrade::Script;
use Module::Find;

start_step "Migrating to new cache";

rm_lib
    findallmod('WebGUI::Cache'),
    'WebGUI::Workflow::Activity::CleanDatabaseCache',
    'WebGUI::Workflow::Activity::CleanFileCache',
;

config->set("cache", {
    'driver'            => 'FastMmap',
    'expires_variance'  => '0.10',
    'root_dir'          => '/tmp/WebGUICache',
});

config->set('hotSessionFlushToDb', 600);
config->delete('disableCache');
config->delete('cacheType');
config->delete('fileCacheRoot');
config->deleteFromArray('workflowActivities/None', 'WebGUI::Workflow::Activity::CleanDatabaseCache');
config->deleteFromArray('workflowActivities/None', 'WebGUI::Workflow::Activity::CleanFileCache');

sql 'DROP TABLE IF EXISTS cache';
sql 'DELETE FROM WorkflowActivity WHERE className in (?,?)',
    'WebGUI::Workflow::Activity::CleanDatabaseCache',
    'WebGUI::Workflow::Activity::CleanFileCache',
;
sql 'DELETE FROM WorkflowActivityData WHERE activityId IN (?,?)',
    'pbwfactivity0000000002',
    'pbwfactivity0000000022',
;

done;

The first thing we do in our new upgrade script is use WebGUI::Upgrade::Script. Now, instead of using the session for everything, we have subs imported for various tasks. This means that many times we can run an entire upgrade script without opening a WebGUI session, or creating a version tag unnecessarily.

If we do need a session, or a version tag, they will be automatically assigned relevant information describing what we're doing. When we're done, they will be automatically cleaned up and committed. What once was done with boilerplate, and subject to random deletion or subversion, is now enforced policy.

In all other respects, a WebGUI upgrade script is a Perl script. You can add modules, write subroutines, and do anything necessary to move WebGUI into the future.

The Internet is always evolving. With the WebGUI 8 upgrade system, we've made it easier to evolve with it.

Stay tuned for next time where I'll show off our CHI-based caching system.

What's New in WebGUI 8 #2: Auth Improvements

Tags:

Originally posted as: What's New in WebGUI 8 #2: Auth Improvements on blogs.perl.org.

Auth changes

WebGUI::Auth was developed as part of 6.0.0, back in 2003. To put that into perspective:

  • Auth predates Facebook, which was founded in 2004.
  • Since Auth, there have been two Summer Olympiads.
  • Auth was written when I was still in college.

Since then, it has not fundamentally changed, though everything about the Internet surely has.

Continue reading What's New in WebGUI 8 #2: Auth Improvements...